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Sara L. Uckelman

As one who is often faced with the same question but with "pre-modern" replacing "non-western", I whole-heartedly subscribe to this!

Elisa Freschi

Thanks a lot, Sara. I have not said it explicitly here, but I also frequently stress that testing one's theory against something remote in *time*, *space* or because of *further conditions* (e.g., because it has been written by a woman, by a trans, by a disabled person, etc. at a time in which women, trans, disabled people etc. were carriers of a completely different perspective) is of key significance.

Neil Sims

Elisa, I found my way here through your response to Anand's post "Cross-Cultural Critical Thinking: We need it now!" on The Indian Philosophy Blog. I'm very sympathetic to your view, and I see it largely in line with Jonardon Ganeri's arguments for philosophical cosmopolitanism.

There is one question that you might be able to help me with, and if so, I'd be very grateful.

In your first bullet point, you use a modal term, "necessarily." I realize the difficulty in making your point, which is a good one, without such terms. But if modality comes into question, as you suggest logic in general could, then this very use of modality might become problematic. Perhaps this is a problem of using logic self-referentially, but it raises a larger sticking point I've noticed when reading Priest: How is it we should evaluate the reasoning used to bring logic into question without presuming one logical frame or another? You seem to be suggesting at least a partially empirical method of testing, so would we simply use argumentative cogency as our standard?

Thanks for your time.

Elisa Freschi

Neil, thanks for the question. I should have avoided the adverb "necessarily" in the sentence you refer to, as it misleadingly suggests a technical usage of the same term. Personally, I would say that the problem of metalanguage cannot be completely solved, but that this can become a virtuous circle, in which we go deeper and deeper in questioning the soundness of our logical frame. But I will ask my colleagues of the logic department and add also their answer.

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